Its collapse affected thousands of employees and shook Wall Stree t to its core. To this day, many wonder how such a powerful businessat the time one of the largest companies in the U. Deregulation of the energy markets allowed companies to place bets on future prices, and Enron was poised to take advantage. InLay created the Enron Finance Corp.
The company doubled in size by and was able to bring the first natural gas to Minnesota. Over Worldcom enron fraud bankruptcy next 50 years, Northern expanded even more as it acquired many energy companies and created new divisions within. It was reorganized in as the main subsidiary of a holding companyInterNorthwhich was a diversified energy and energy-related products company.
Although most of the acquisitions conducted were successful, some ended poorly. InterNorth competed with Cooper Industries over a hostile takeover of Crouse-Hinds Companyan electrical products manufacturer. InterNorth was ultimately unsuccessful as Cooper bought out Crouse-Hinds. Cooper and InterNorth feuded over numerous suits during the course of the takeover that were eventually settled after the transaction was completed.
The subsidiary Northern Natural Gas operated the largest natural gas pipeline company in North America. By the s, InterNorth became a major force for natural gas production, transmission, and marketing as well as for natural gas liquids, and was an innovator in the plastics industry.
Under the leadership of CEO Robert Herring from tothe company became a large dominant force in the energy industry with a large pipeline network as a result from a prosperous period of growth in the early to mids. This growth was largely a result of the exploitation of the unregulated Texas natural gas market and the commodity surge in the early s.
Matthews briefly took over as CEO in a 3-year stint with initial success, but ultimately, a big dip in earnings led to his exit. InKenneth Lay succeeded Matthews and inherited the troubled, but large diversified energy conglomerate. The combined assets of the two companies would create the second largest gas pipeline system at the time in the United States.
Lay moved the headquarters of the new company back to energy capital Houston. The name was eventually dismissed over its apparent likening to an intestine and shortened to "Enron.
In addition, the company began to ramp up its electric power and natural gas efforts. In andthe company began adding power plants and cogeneration units to its portfolio. Enron adopted the idea and called it the "Gas Bank. First, Enron invested heavily in overseas assets, specifically energy.
Another major shift was the gradual transition of focus from a producer of energy to a company that acted more like an investment firm and sometimes a hedge fundmaking profits off the margins of the products it traded.
Skilling hired Andrew Fastow in to help with this. Entrance into the retail energy market[ edit ] Starting in under the Energy Policy Act ofCongress allowed states to deregulate their electricity utilities, allowing them to be opened for competition.
California was one such state to do so. Enron, seeing an opportunity with rising prices, was eager to jump into the market. Although an Oregon utility, it had potential to begin serving the massive California market since PGE was a regulated utility.
The new Enron division, Enron Energy, ramped up its efforts by offering discounts to potential customers in California for switching their electric supplier to Enron from their previous supplier, starting in Enron Energy also began to sell natural gas to customers in Ohio and wind power in Iowa.
It launched a secret plan to build an enormous amount of fiber optic transmission capacity in Las Vegas On March 12,a proposed year deal between Enron and Blockbuster Inc. Mark and EI believed the water industry was the next market to be deregulated by authorities and seeing the potential, searched for ways to enter the market, similar to PGE.Date of bankruptcy filing: 07/21/02 Assets: $ billion Once the second-largest long-distance telecom in the U.S.
after AT&T, WorldCom filed for bankruptcy protection following the discovery of an $11 billion accounting scandal.
At the time, Enron's collapse was the biggest corporate bankruptcy to ever hit the financial world (since then, the failures of WorldCom, Lehman Brothers, and Washington Mutual have surpassed it.
Enron filed for bankruptcy in the Southern District of New York in late and selected Weil, Gotshal & Manges as its bankruptcy counsel. It ended its bankruptcy during November , pursuant to a court-approved plan of reorganization.
WorldCom's accountants at the time were Arthur Andersen, the same people that looked after Enron's books as well as other companies hit by accounting issues - Tyco, Global Crossing and Adelphia.
Enron Corporation was an American energy, commodities, and services company based in Houston, attheheels.com was founded in as a merger between Houston Natural Gas and InterNorth, both relatively small regional attheheels.com its bankruptcy on December 2, , Enron employed approximately 20, staff and was a major electricity, natural gas, communications and pulp and paper company, .
Worldcom & Enron Fraud & Bankruptcy WorldCom Fraud & Bankruptcy (21/07/); Assets: $ billion Long Distance Discount Services, Inc.
(LDDS) began in Hattiesburg, Mississippi. in The company name was changed to LDDS WorldCom in , and later just WorldCom.