State and local governments can have a major impact on this transition. Bob Graves, associate director of the Governing Institute, recently highlighted this trendemphasizing the growth of distributed generation and microgrids. These technologies, empowered by microchips and wireless communications, are allowing more and more customers to produce their own power -- power that is more reliable, cleaner and more affordable than electricity from the grid.
The first of these took place in the late 19th century and was concerned largely with gaining the right to vote and to stand for election into parliament. The second wave of feminism took place in the s and s and focused on gaining equality with men in other areas, such as work, the law and general social standing.
The second wave targeted many different aspects of life and presented a broader challenge to traditional ideas of women's rights. It therefore led to more fundamental changes in the daily lives of mainstream Australian women.
The first wave brought women the vote in federal and State elections.
The colonies began to grant manhood suffrage halfway through the nineteenth century, however, women were not originally included. When Australia reached Federation init was agreed that all women should be given the vote at a federal level since women from South Australia and Western Australia already had a State vote.
The changing role of women all women were given the vote in federal elections except for those who were Indigenous Australians, or of Asian, African or Pacific Islander descent. See image 1 Despite the enfranchisement, no woman was elected to an Australian parliament until The first federal female parliamentarians were not elected until This is just one example of how enfranchisement fell short of truly improving the lives of Australian women or changing attitudes about them.
Women were still seen as nurturers who had no other destiny than to marry and raise children. The few women who did work excluding the wealth who were involved in voluntary work not only had to find paid work, but also had to carry the burden of all housework and child-rearing.
The notion of what jobs a woman could do expanded during World War I, but women's role in public life was still very limited. Factors which brought about the women's movement Contrary to popular belief, women's groups and activists remained active throughout the decades in the lead-up to World War II.
They continued to campaign on issues that affected women, such as the right to equal pay and the right for women to enter the professions, own property and participate in public life. They had some success with these things, although their successes did not translate to real change in these areas.
The s were a hard time for women, particularly poor women, who had multiple hardships to endure because of the Depression. They concentrated on survival for themselves and their families.
World War II saw many women join the workforce of necessity, taking up jobs that had previously been considered only for men. Whilst many were expected to give up their jobs to returned soldiers after the War, as they had done after World War I, social attitudes towards what women were capable of doing had been changed by the experience.
Despite this fuelling women's attempts to achieve better conditions and pay for themselves in the workforce, the post-war era was very materialistic and entrenched the idea that women should only be wives and mothers.
The conservatism of the post-war era had made it harder for women's movements to continue their momentum in the s and s. See image 2 Early feminists wrote books in the s that questioned the roles of women.
Women in Europe, the United States and Australia began to re-think long-held beliefs about femininity. Around the same time the contraceptive pill became available, allowing women greater control of their lives.
The Vietnam War sparked large protests in America and Australia which galvanised women. Realising that they were not treated as equals by their fellow male students and activists, women formed their own activist movement to seek liberation.
The women's liberation movement: Some women's groups sought to improve women's rights through existing power structures, including increasing women's representation in powerful institutions like parliament and unions.
Other groups tried to find alternative forms of protest and expression. These women kept away from what they saw as a male-oriented power base and sought to change things through demonstrations aimed at raising the consciousness of all of society.
Three main areas of concern for the women's movement were culture and education, health, and sexuality. Women expressed their opposition to patriarchy through art and literature, including that written by author Germaine Greer.A gender role, also known as a sex role, is a social role encompassing a range of behaviors and attitudes that are generally considered acceptable, appropriate, or desirable for people based on their actual or perceived sex or sexuality.
Gender roles are usually centered on conceptions of femininity and masculinity, although there are exceptions and variations. Women's movements in post-WWII Canada gave women social freedoms that allowed them to explore non-traditional women's roles.
In pre-world War II Canada, the role of women in society was clearly defined and adhered to for the majority of women/5(17). Russell O’Connor has always felt trapped between male and female, but he finds freedom in dressing as a woman. My wife used to say that she could tell how I was feeling by what was in the laundry basket.
When the economy and political organization of a society change, families who can adjust to the new conditions will fare the best. Inasmuch as women the world over are the primary caretakers of young children, they play an important role in facilitating or hindering changes in family life.
During the Koryo and early Choson Dynasties, it was customary for the married couple to live in the wife's parents' household. This arrangement suggests that the status of women was then higher than it was later during most of the Choson Dynasty.
Neo- Confucian orthodoxy dictated that the woman. Early in history, men dominated the Chinese society while women were deprived of all rights and were present mainly to serve men, they had to subordinate to their fathers, husbands, brothers and sons.