In testing the communication skills of dolphins, extensive studies have been done on vocal mimicry, in which the animal imitates computer-generated sounds in order to test motor control in terms of cognitive ability.
Language comprehension on the other hand has been tested through labeling of objects, which has proven to be successful regarding the association of sound and object stimulus. The biggest question in dolphin communication, is whether or not the species is capable of intentional communicative acts.
In determining this, the greatest accomplishment for both the scientist and all of humanity, would be to accomplish interspecies communication, creating a bridge between humans and animals which could open up a new understanding of the unknown world of wildlife.
The acoustical reception and processing abilities of the bottlenosed dolphins have generally been shown to be among the most sophisticated of any animal so far examined Popper, as cited by Schusterman et al. In order to understand the complexity of these highly mechanized acoustic systems, it is necessary to learn the process for which the dolphin hears.
In most water-adapted cetaceans, tissue conduction is the primary route of sound conduction to the middle ear. The isolation of the bullae shows an adaptation for tissue-conducted sound. The lower jaw contains fat that is closely associated with the impedance of seawater.
The lower jawbone of most odontocetes becomes broadened and quite thin posteriorly, and the fat forms an oval shape that closely corresponds to the area of minimum thickness of the jaw.
This fat body leads directly to the bulla, producing a sound path to the ear structures located deep within the head. Other than this description, there are still more studies needed to determine the function of the middle ear and the type of bone conduction that occurs within the bulla.
We will write a custom essay sample on dolphins talking Order now More Essay Examples on Due to detailed audiograms, dolphins have been shown to have the ability to detect high-frequency sounds.
In an experiment by Johnson as cited in Schusterman et al.
The animal was trained to swim in a stationary area within a stall and to watch for a light to come on. Following the light presentation a sound was sometimes presented. If the dolphin heard the sound, its task was to leave the area and push a lever.
Sound intensity levels were varied by a staircase method of 1, 2, or 3 dB steps. The experiments done on dolphin auditory functions have generally shown a finely adapted sound reception system.
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This would be expected due to the highly adapted echolocation ability of the bottlenosed dolphin and other cetaceans. Results of work on absolute thresholds, critical bandwidths, frequency discrimination, and sound localization all indicate that the dolphin auditory system is at least as good or better than the human system.
This is in spite of the fact that sound travels five times as fast under water as it does in air Popov et al. The bottlenosed dolphin in captivity produces two categories of vocalizations: Descriptions in literature emphasizing either the whistles or the pulsed sounds have led to contradictory hypotheses concerning the communication system of the dolphin.
A number of observations of apparent vocal mimicry have been made, though with no systematic investigation of the degree of vocal flexibility. The observed variability in the whistles, combined with the difficulty of identifying individual vocalizing dolphins in a group, has led to speculation that the whistles might be a complex, shared system, in which specific meanings could be assigned to specific whistles.
Consideration of vocal mimicry has been taken to understand its relation to cognitive complexity, and to the potential use of vocal response for communication in an artificial language.
The dolphin using its whistle mode of vocalization imitated all of the sounds, and all were distinct from the unreinforced whistles produced prior to training. The results of the mimicry training have shown that dolphins can mimic tonal sounds with frequencies between 4 and 20 Hz.
In object labeling, the dolphins seemed to understand the task of associating model sounds with displayed objects. Progress was most rapid when the model sound was always presented at full intensity, but the probability of its being presented on any given trial was systematically decreased over successive trials.
This demonstration of symbolic use of vocalizations could lead to the investigation of the potential of animals to form referential concepts, thus creating a new understanding of dolphin communication and its uses in the wild.
The fact that awareness as applied to the phenomena of human communication also implies something we would not attribute to animals-and this is the awareness that communicative acts are behaviors about behaviors Crook,as cited in Schusterman et al. Language, as we know it, could not exist without the capacity for intentional communication, as all linguistic communications are, by definition, intentional.
Dolphins have been observed to have some of these intentional communication characteristics, as their behaviors have shown in captivity.Talking Point on the use of animals in scientific research Bernard E Rollin 1 (Author photo) 1 Bernard E.
Rollin is Professor of Philosophy, Professor of Animal Sciences, Professor of Biomedical Sciences and a bioethicist at Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA. Feb 04, · Do you like animals? Do you have a pet? Join me and Gizmo and learn to speak about your favorite animals!
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Highlights. Sort by: Babe Essay Film ; Surrealist Film. 31 March Animal Farm Essay Joseph Stalin was a major dictator in influencing communism in Russia. He used his Writing as if you were speaking in Napoleon's voice talking to the other animals, explain why Boxer is sent to the Knacker's.
Comrades of Animal Farm! We are gathered here today not to mourn Boxer but to understand him. Sep 08, · An expository essay is an essay that provides the reader information about a particular topic. To write an expository essay on an animal, you'll have to choose an animal and provide a variety of information on that animal%(30).
Fable: short story with talking animals & a moral. Moral: lesson of the story (clearly stated). Both have monsters, magic, or talking animals. Basic Sample Informative Essay.
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