Jonsen, PhD with Clarence H.
Formation[ edit ] A profession arises when any trade or occupation transforms itself through "the development of formal qualifications based upon education, apprenticeship, and examinations, the emergence of regulatory bodies with powers to admit and discipline members, and some degree of monopoly rights.
Professional body Originally, any regulation of the professions was self-regulation through bodies such as the College of Physicians or the Inns of Court. With the growing role of government, statutory bodies have increasingly taken on this role, their members being appointed either by the profession or increasingly by government.
Proposals for the introduction or enhancement of statutory regulation may be welcomed by a profession as protecting clients and enhancing its quality and reputation, or as restricting access to the profession and hence enabling higher fees to be charged.
It may be resisted as limiting the members' freedom to innovate or to practice as in their professional judgement they consider best.
An example was in 12, when the British government proposed wide statutory regulation of psychologists. The inspiration for the change was a number of problems in the psychotherapy field, but there are various kinds of psychologist including many who have no clinical role and where the case for regulation was not so clear.
Work psychology brought especial disagreement, with the British Psychological Society favoring statutory regulation of "occupational psychologists" and the Association of Business Psychologists resisting the statutory regulation of "business psychologists" — descriptions of professional activity which it may not be easy to distinguish.
Besides regulating access to a profession, professional bodies may set examinations of competence and enforce adherence to an ethical code.
Another example of a regulatory body that governs a profession is the Hong Kong Professional Teachers Union, which governs the conduct, rights, obligations and duties of salaried teachers working in educational institutions in Hong Kong. The engineering profession is highly regulated in some countries Canada and USA with a strict licensing system for Professional Engineer that controls the practice but not in others UK where titles and qualifications are regulated Chartered Engineer but practice is not regulated.
Typically, individuals are required by law to be qualified by a local professional body before they are permitted to practice in that profession. However, in some countries, individuals may not be required by law to be qualified by such a professional body in order to practice, as is the case for accountancy in the United Kingdom except for auditing and insolvency work which legally require qualification by a professional body.
In such cases, qualification by the professional bodies is effectively still considered a prerequisite to practice as most employers and clients stipulate that the individual hold such qualifications before hiring their services.
For example, in order to become a fully qualified teaching professional in Hong Kong working in a state or government-funded school, one needs to have successfully completed a Postgraduate Diploma in Education "PGDE" or a bachelor's degree in Education "BEd" at an approved tertiary educational institution or university.
This requirement is set out by the Educational Department Bureau of Hong Kong, which is the governmental department that governs the Hong Kong education sector.
Autonomy[ edit ] Professions tend to be autonomous, which means they have a high degree of control of their own affairs: One major implication of professional autonomy is the traditional ban on corporate practice of the professions, especially accounting, architecture, medicine, and law.
This means that in many jurisdictions, these professionals cannot do business through regular for-profit corporations and raise capital rapidly through initial public offerings or flotations.
Instead, if they wish to practice collectively they must form special business entities such as partnerships or professional corporationswhich feature 1 reduced protection against liability for professional negligence and 2 severe limitations or outright prohibitions on ownership by non-professionals.
The obvious implication of this is that all equity owners of the professional business entity must be professionals themselves. This avoids the possibility of a non-professional owner of the firm telling a professional how to do his or her job and thereby protects professional autonomy.
The idea is that the only non-professional person who should be telling the professional what to do is the client; in other words, professional autonomy preserves the integrity of the two-party professional-client relationship.
But because professional business entities are effectively locked out of the stock market, they tend to grow relatively slowly compared to public corporations.
Status and prestige[ edit ] Main article: Occupational prestige Professions enjoy a high social statusregard and esteem conferred upon them by society. All professions involve technical, specialized and highly skilled work often referred to as "professional expertise.
Updating skills through continuing education is required through training.
A profession tends to dominate, police and protect its area of expertise and the conduct of its members, and exercises a dominating influence over its entire field which means that professions can act monopolist,  rebuffing competition from ancillary trades and occupations, as well as subordinating and controlling lesser but related trades.
It is the power, prestige and value that society confers upon a profession that more clearly defines it.
The power of professions has led to them being referred to as conspiracies against the laity. On the other hand, professionals acquire some of their power and authority in organizations from their expertise and knowledge.
As such they can bend rules, reduce bureaucratic inertia and increase problem solving and adaptability. They have a "professional association, cognitive base, institutionalized training, licensing, work autonomycolleague control Members of a profession have also been defined as "workers whose qualities of detachment, autonomy, and group allegiance are more extensive than those found among other groupsProfessionalism and Ethics in the Public Health Curriculum However, defining public health ethics as a field different from clinical ethics emphasizes the issues specific to population-based health and identifies a moral grounding for public health practice.
and their clients. All health professionals also have an obligation to. Professionalism is an indispensable element in the compact between the medical profession and society that is based on trust and putting the needs of patients above all other considerations.
ABIM Foundation develops and implements projects in support of the mission to advance medical professionalism to improve the quality of health care. The sociology of health and illness, alternatively the sociology of health and wellness (or simply health sociology), examines the interaction between society and attheheels.com objective of this topic is to see how social life affects morbidity and mortality rate, and vice versa.
This aspect of sociology differs from medical sociology in that this branch of sociology discusses health and illness. Professional Scope of Physical Therapist Practice. The professional scope of practice of physical therapy is defined as practice that is grounded in the profession’s unique body of knowledge, supported by educational preparation, based on a body of evidence, and .
Nowadays, the word “professionalism” is a popular issue at the leading edge of entire healthcare professions especially in the field of physiotherapy. It is presently one of the primary areas of interest as physiotherapy progresses to Vision