How sophisticated is the usage: Each one of them seems equally reasonable and depends on the objective pursued by the analyst".
View large Download slide Classic solution tree. Most simply this is done by reversing the problem factor, so, for example, low intake of iron-rich foods is turned into high-intake.
An entire solution tree which has the same number of solutions as there were problems is developed, not just focusing on one area Gross et al. This ensures a more comprehensive assessment, although not all the actions would necessarily be taken Mahanty and Stacey, A stage of prioritization usually follows.
Modified problem tree and solution tree mPAST methodology for the Pacific Islands The research in Fiji involved a multi-sectoral group of informed local stakeholders, and it was also expected that the process would increase their understanding of influences on diet.
The availability of the stakeholder group was limited, and therefore it was important to ensure that minimum time was spent for maximum gain. This meant that the process needed to be specific and also avoid overlapping with any of the other planned research steps.
Based on this, there were three areas which seemed possible areas for modifications.
The starting problem for developing the tree, could it be made more specific to the issues under consideration? Was there a need to develop both halves of the tree: Could the development of the solutions be simplified to reduce the need to develop an entire solution tree?
Starting the problem tree with something as non-specific as an unhealthy diet would have led to an overly complex tree, which would have been unwieldy and difficult to develop and might miss critical issues. Two modifications were therefore made: In order to develop a number of smaller trees, instead of one larger tree, the key components of an unhealthy diet were used as the starting problems.
A tree was developed for each food type that was over or under-consumed, such as fruits, vegetables, oils and fish. To reduce the time needed, while also increasing the specificity, three issues were provided as the first layer: Cost or price, supply or accessibility and preference or choice are critical aspects of the food environment Glanz et al.
This also ensured that they did not only focus on preference, but also considered environmental influences. Starting layer for modified problem trees. View large Download slide Starting layer for modified problem trees.
Existing evidence regarding the effects of poor diets on non-communicable diseases WHO, ; WHO,and also the resulting economic Dalton and Crowley, ; Doran, ; Khaleghian, and social costs could be provided, rather than asking the group to generate this.
The final area of modification was in the development of the solution tree.
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The standard methodology requires at least as much time to develop the solution tree as the problem tree, although much of that time might be spent on only detailing the effects of a solution, rather than on generating ideas.
The requirement to develop an entirely new solution or objective tree was therefore removed. Instead solutions were brainstormed only for the key underlying factors, and these were then placed adjacent to problem factors on the original problem tree, creating a combined tree.
While this was done primarily to save time, it would also more easily allow for multiple solutions for any problem factor. The process of using the mPAST method was similar in the Pacific Island countries where it was used, and was consistent with standard problem tree and solution development.
The method is quite simple, requiring an informed multi-sectoral group, facilitator and few materials. The process was guided by a facilitator who provided a quick initial introduction to the method, along with examples.
The key guiding principles provided to the group to remember as they worked were that: This included the initially planned use in Fiji, and an additional three countries.Problem Solution: Harrison-Keyes, Inc. Introduction Harrison-Keyes, Inc. is still desperately trying to establish a foothold in the struggling publishing industry.
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The results from this analysis will identify the gaps and surpluses in staffing levels needed for the future. General Systems Analysis Links.
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Generation gap - reasons, effects and solution. Posted Date: This problem leads to communication gap and the two parties are unable to understand the channel for communication. Realization and a high level of understanding is one of the optimal solutions to combat the problem.
Problem Solution: Intersect Investment Services Intersect Investment Services (IIS) is a financial services industry company which has been struggling to survive in a market which has been in constant state of flux, never certain and always chaotic (University of Phoenix, ).
Once the analysis builds a model of the problem and finds the root causes and their high leverage points, solutions are developed to push on the leverage points.
Because each solution is aimed at resolving a specific known root cause, you can't miss.