Recidivism Problems in the US Criminal Justice System Other critics point out that marijuana is a relatively benign drug that is less addicting than alcohol. Anti-drug advocates, however, do not concede that marijuana is at all benign.
These sources may yield different crime rates and trends.
Each source has advantages and drawbacks, and each alone gives an incomplete picture of crime. In this section, we discuss these sources of data and their strengths and weaknesses.
Arrest Data A common way of measuring crime is to use the Uniform Crime Reports UCRwhich are compiled from data on crimes known to the police and on arrests that are reported annually to the Federal Bureau of Investigation FBI by police agencies around the country.
Data have been collected by the FBI sinceallowing the study of crime and arrest trends over time.
The UCR provide crime counts for the United States as a whole, as well as for regions, states, counties, cities, and towns. In addition, the UCR provide data on, among other things, crimes known to the police, crimes cleared by arrest, and characteristics of persons arrested.
However, UCR reporting is voluntary, and the total number of reporting police agencies varies from year to year. The accuracy and completeness of the data are affected by the voluntary nature of UCR reporting Maltz, In some years, data from one or more entire states have been unavailable.
For example, from tono usable data were obtained from either Florida or Kentucky Federal Bureau of Investigation, Coverage within states also varies from year to year. The FBI imputes information when none has been reported.
Because many of the tables in the published UCR, including the breakdown by age, are based on whichever agencies report in a given year and not on a nationally representative sample, caution must be used in making generalizations to all young people in the United States based on UCR data.
This is particularly true with regard to analyses regarding race, because the racial makeup of the areas covered by reporting agencies may not reflect the racial makeup of the country. Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice.
The National Academies Press. The crime index includes the violent offenses of murder and nonnegligent homicide, forcible rape, robbery, aggravated assault, and the property offenses of burglary, larceny theft, motor vehicle theft, and arson.
There are drawbacks to using arrest data as a measure of crime. Arrest statistics do not reflect the number of different people arrested each year, because an unknown number of people may be arrested more than once in a year. For some crimes, no arrests are made.
For others, there may be multiple arrests. Furthermore, not everyone who is arrested has committed the crime for which he or she was arrested. Arrests also depend on a number of factors other than overall crime levels, including policies of particular police agencies, the cooperation of victims, the skill of the perpetrator, and the age, sex, race, and social class of the suspect Cook and Laub, ; McCord, c.
Nor should arrest statistics be confused with the number of crimes committed, because in some cases, the arrest of one person may account for a series of crimes, and in others several people may be arrested for one crime.
This is particularly true for young people, who are more likely than adults to commit crimes in a group McCord, ; Reiss, ; Reiss and Farrington, ; Zimring, Snyder contends that this tendency to offend in groups makes arrest statistics an inappropriate measure of the relative proportion of crime attributed to young people.
Checking on Snyder's position, McCord and Conway analyzed a random sample of juvenile offenders in Philadelphia.The criminal justice system and criminal law are thought to be operating on behalf of rich and powerful social elites, with resulting policies aimed at controlling the poor.
The criminal justice establishment aims at imposing standards of morality and good behavior created by the powerful on the whole of society. Culturally relevant programs and culturally competent individuals can better serve youth, and when cultural competence partners with social justice, society may finally achieve equality in health outcomes for all young people, regardless of their race/ethnicity, language, gender, religion, or .
Sociologists analyze social phenomena at different levels and from different perspectives. From concrete interpretations to sweeping generalizations of society Three Major Perspectives in Sociology.
The Criminal Justice System Theories of Deviance Types of Social Classes of People. Policy Implications Government implemented or mandated systematic data collection, analysis, and reporting of racial data from the criminal justice system is needed to develop a better understanding of the nature of race, crime, and criminal justice in Canada.
The criminal justice system People from BAME communities are over-represented at almost all stages of the criminal justice process, disproportionately targeted by the police, more likely to be imprisoned and more likely to be imprisoned for longer than white British people.
over representation of minorities in the criminal justice system we have to study race, ethnicity and past discriminatory judicial practices.
Are the historical discriminatory practices and past laws the cause of the systematic imbalance of power in relation to race, class and discrimination within our society that leads to more crime among.