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Definitions[ edit ] David Ogilvy noted that while there was no real consensus as to the meaning of positioning among marketing experts, his definition is "what a product does, and who it is for".
For instance, Dove has been successfully positioned as bars of soap for women with dry hands, vs. In an article, Industrial Marketing, published inJack Trout stated that positioning is a mental device used by consumers to simplify information inputs and store new information in a logical place.
He said this is important because the typical consumer is overwhelmed with unwanted advertising, and has a natural tendency to discard all information that does not immediately find a comfortable and empty slot in their mind. The Battle for Your Mind, the duo expanded the definition as "an organized system for finding a window in the mind.
It is based on the concept that communication can only take place at the right time and under the right circumstances". In marketing, value is defined as the difference between a prospective customer's evaluation of the benefits and costs of one product when compared with others.
Value can be expressed in numerous forms including product benefits, features, style, value for money. Product differentiation The precise origins of the positioning concept are unclear. CanoSchwartzkopf and others have argued that the concepts of market segmentation and positioning were central to the tacit knowledge that informed brand advertising from the s, but did not become codified in marketing textbooks and journal articles until the s and 60s.
Ries and Trout, both former advertising executives, published articles about positioning in Industrial Marketing in and Advertising Age in InRies and Trout published their now classic book, Positioning: The Battle for Your Mind. However, the claim that Ries and Trout devised the concept has been challenged by marketing scholars.
According to Stephen A. Fox, Al Ries and Jack Trout "resurrected the concept and made it their trademark.
Ogilvy's own writings indicate that he was well aware of the concept and drilled his creative team with this idea from at least the s. Among other things, Ogilvy wrote that "the most important decision is how to position your product" and,  "Everyone in the organization should understand the brand positioning and use it as context for making decisions"  and "Every advertisement is part of the long-term investment in the personality of the brand.
In relation to a Dove campaign launched inOgilvy explained, "I could have positioned Dove as a detergent bar for men with dirty hands, but chose instead to position it as a toilet bar for women with dry skin. This is still working 25 years later. We positioned it as a car for winter.
Three years later it was voted the best car for Norwegian winters. Cano, for example, has argued that marketing practitioners followed competitor-based approaches to both market segmentation and product positioning in the first decades of the twentieth century; long before these concepts were introduced into the marketing literature in the s and 60s.
Walter Thompson JWTbegan to focus on developing brand personality, brand image and brand identity—concepts that are very closely related to positioning.
Across the Atlantic, the English agency, W. Crawford's Ltd, began to use the concept of 'product personality' and the 'advertising idea' arguing that in order to stimulate sales and create a 'buying habit' advertising had to 'build a definitive association of ideas round the goods'.
The agency suggested that the traditional positioning as a product for woolen garments should be broadened so that consumers would see it as a soap for use on all fine fabrics in the household. To implement, Lux was repositioned with a more up-market posture, and began a long association with expensive clothing and high fashion.
Cano has argued that the positioning strategy JWT used for Lux exhibited an insightful understanding of the way that consumers mentally construct brand images. JWT recognised that advertising effectively manipulated socially shared symbols. In the case of Lux, the brand disconnected from images of household drudgery, and connected with images of leisure and fashion.
Ries and Trout codified the tacit knowledge that was available in the advertising industry; popularising the positioning concept with the publication their articles and books.
Ries and Trout were influential in diffusing the concept of positioning from the advertising community through to the broader marketing community. Their articles were to become highly influential. In Ries and Trout published their classic book, Positioning: The concept enjoys ongoing currency among both advertisers and marketers as suggested by Maggard  who notes that positioning provides planners with a valuable conceptual vehicle, which is effectively used to make various strategy techniques more meaningful and more productive.74) All marketing strategy is built on segmentation, targeting, and positioning.
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