Fusion welding and non fusion welding overview

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Fusion welding and non fusion welding overview

YouTube I have heard some people say that with all welding, you must have deep or maximum penetration into the base plate in order for a weld to be strong. If you have shallow penetration, the weld is weaker. The deepest possible weld penetration is always best.

Are these statements accurate? To keep the article fairly short, the discussion will be limited to arc welding, two common types of weld joints T and butt and two common types of welds fillet and groove. See examples in Figure 1. Commmon Joint and Weld Types Arc welding is taking two or more separate pieces of metal and joining them into one continuous or homogeneous section.

You achieve coalescence, which means to blend or come together.

Fusion welding and non fusion welding overview

In other words, the purpose of arc welding is to achieve fusion between the initially separate pieces of metal. Fusion occurs when you have atomic bonding of the metals. The molecules of each separate piece of metal and the filler metal bond together when you have 1 atomic cleanliness and 2 atomic closeness see Figure 2.

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This occurs with arc welding such that the atoms of each piece of metal bond together with shared electrons to become one solid or homogeneous piece of metal. A cross section of a weld particularly when etched will show you the penetration profile of the weld, including the depth and width of penetration see examples in Figures 3 and 4, which also name and highlight the various parts of a fillet and groove weld.

To achieve the proper weld strength, all welding requires complete fusion to occur between the pieces of metal and filler metal, but not all joints require a large depth of fusion or deep penetration.

As long as you have achieved complete fusion between the filler metal and the base plates and when appropriate, the steel backing baryou have successfully joined the metal together into one homogenous piece. It does not matter if you have deep penetration or shallow penetration.

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Theoretically but not realisticallyyou could even have complete fusion to just the depth of a few molecules and still have welded the pieces together. As an example, refer to the T joint and fillet weld in Figure 3. The required weld strength is achieved by having complete fusion and by producing the proper fillet weld size measured by either the leg length or theoretical throat length for a given weldment.

The appropriate weld size needed to achieve adequate weld strength is determined by the design engineer during the design stage. How this is determined is beyond the scope of this article.

Fusion welding and non fusion welding overview

However, as the fabricator, as long as you make the proper sized weld per the design specification and achieve complete fusion between the filler metal and base plates, including the root, you have produced a weld of sufficient strength.

Weld strength is not determined by the level of penetration into the base plates. Proper weld strength for a CJP groove weld is achieved by having complete weld fusion and by using the correct strength filler metal i. Again, weld strength is not determined by the level of penetration into the base plates.

What is different between fusion and non fusion welding

Note also that with a CJP groove weld, the size of the weld does not determine weld strength either, as it does with a fillet weld. Rather, weld size is simply the resulting volume of weld metal necessary to fill in the joint of the proper dimensions i.

Proper joint dimensions are those which allow enough access of the electrode into the joint so that good welding techniques can be used to achieve complete fusion with the base plates and steel backing bar.

In addition, proper joint dimensions are necessary to ensure that the root pass has the correct depth to width ratio discussed later in this article. Parts of a Groove Weld The need to achieve complete fusion has been emphasized in this article.

That is because a problem can arise if you have a lack of fusion in any part of the joint. This can be a discontinuity with the sidewall fusion, properly termed joint penetration, or fusion at the root, properly termed root penetration.

Incomplete fusion can become a weld defect area, which can affect the weld strength and ultimately lead to weld failure. Figure 5 shows examples of acceptable and unacceptable weld profiles.

Fillet Weld Profiles While not necessarily related to weld strength, there are situations in which deeper weld penetration can be beneficial. Here are three examples: As stated earlier, you must achieve complete fusion at the root of a weld joint.

When you have a welding procedure that produces a deeper weld penetration and a resulting wider penetration profileyou increase the chances of still achieving complete fusion at the root, even with welders that have limited skills.

A deeper and broader penetration profile covers a bigger area.Completed this engine swap '06 fuzion motor to '05 6 with automatic transmission, so everything had to be swapped (crank pulley, crank sensor, timing cover, .

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When first invented, the laser was a solution looking for a problem to solve. Early laser welding applications were reserved for only the most exotic applications, where no other welding . Fusion welding is a generic term for welding processes that rely on melting to join materials of similar compositions and melting points.

Due to the high-temperature phase transitions inherent to these processes, a heat-affected zone is created in the material.

Fusion welding is any welding process in which melting is used to connect two objects made of similar materials. For example, to use fusion welding to connect two wires, the ends of the wires are heated, and metal solder is melted with a blowtorch to hold the wires together.

5 Electrofusion Procedure Overview 1 3 5 7 6 8 4 2 Measure and cut pipe to required length allowing for correct insertion depth into welding coupler.

Use one of the scraping tools provided in the.

Weld-FAQ: Useful Answers to Common Questions