How to Write a Good Essay on Peace:
Within this framework solutions to violent intractable conflicts can be mediated and ameliorated. But we can also use the same guidelines to analyze whether PKOs are effective solutions for intractable conflicts.
Opinions differ on this last point.
Some feel that, though the solutions offered by PKOs may not be complete, in many situations they are the best that can be hoped for. One author argues, however, that according to the general framework of criteria for PKOs most have been failures.
Civil war broke out in the newly formed Republic of Cyprus in December of Peacekeeping Force was deployed and became operational. We can see in the Cyprus example how a peacekeeping force organized around the principles of neutrality, light armaments, and mutual consent was able to verify the terms of the peace agreement and demobilize the combatants to a certain extent, but have largely failed in any goals of reintegration and state-building.
The successes and failures of this mission provide some insight in the overall ability of PKOs in any operation. The success of peacekeeping operations depends on two key issues. If one or both sides want to continue the fighting, a PKO will be very unlikely to maintain the peace.
Only in this context can peacekeeping forces prove to be effective solutions to intractable conflicts. There are many more that are needed as well. While the United Nations is not the only intergovernmental organization IGO to undertake peacekeeping missions, it is the most experienced.
Remarkably, 42 of these have occurred since the end of the Cold War. For example, Gregory Downs and Stephen Stedman use two criteria for evaluating a PKO, one of which has an implicit peacebuilding element to it: Most research in the field agrees that peacekeeping forces are quite effective at accomplishing the first criteria, but have more trouble with the second.
Thus we can say that the introduction of a PKO into a conflict is very effective at ending violence and establishing short-term peace, but less successful at maintaining that peace after they have left. In the context of intractable conflict this may not be as damning as it seems: After all, a stagnant partial peace is preferable to continued violence.
Though building a stable and peaceful state may be preferable to maintaining peace through the continued presence of peacekeeping forces, the maintenance of peace in any form is preferable to continued violence. In these limited circumstances PKOs can offer a valuable solution to violent intractable conflicts.
The Will for Peace However, no PKO would have any chance at success without a willingness by all parties to participate. Downs and Stedman focus this willingness on the political and economic will of outside powers to get involved in the peacemaking process.
For Fen Hampson, willingness, or ripeness as he calls it, refers to the readiness of combatant parties to consider proposals that might alter the status quo.
However, the latter consideration is most important for both peacekeeping and peacebuilding. Dennis Jett points out that PKOs often fail before they get started because of a failure of will on the part of the world powers.
A lightly armed U. Peacekeeping Mission led by Canadian Gen. Romeo Dallaire was in Rwanda before the genocide began. He requested another 2, men to use in a peacekeeping role.
His request was turned down and subsequentlyRwandans by some accounts were killed in days, mostly by machete. As Dallaire put it, "The explosion of genocide could have been prevented if the political will had been there and if we had been better skilled Jill Freeman cites previous research showing that international pressure is the key determinant in the success of security guarantees which are closely related to PKOs.
At this point we have a good understanding of the definition of peacekeeping forces, their capabilities, the criteria for judging success, and the roles of the actors involved in ensuring that success.
We have yet to answer the nagging question of how successful the various PKOs have been. As discussed, peacekeeping, since its beginnings over 50 years ago, has not been an overwhelming success.
The ideal peacekeeping mission would have a clear entry plan, establish a lasting peace, and leave behind a set of stable institutions for ensuring that peace, all in the timeframe of two to three years.
As it stands, of the 55 U. PKOs, 15 are ongoing. Of those, at least 10 have been going on for more than 10 years and five of these have been going on for more than 20 years. Of the remaining 40 cases, Downs and Stedman only analyze 16, but of these only six qualify as unmitigated successes.
PKOs do not have a promising track record. What can be done to improve the probability of success in peacekeeping missions? We can also agree that even partial successes in intractable conflicts are desirable.Peace-keeping missions in Somalia Essay Peacekeeping missions in Somalia Somalia is Africa's easternmost country and has a land area of , square kilometres.
It is located at the tip of a region commonly referred to as the Horn of Africa (because of its resemblance on the map to a rhinoceros' horn) and is neighboured by Ethiopia, Eritrea.
- Peacekeeping has played a significant role in defining and shaping the country that Canada is today. Canada’s role used to be viewed by many as insufficient in the major issues which regarded the traditional powers of the world. This essay aims to focus on various junctures that took place in altering Indian foreign policy, by analyzing.
In this essay, however, peacekeeping will be understood as the second phase of the peace process that is distinct from long-term peacebuilding. This reflects the United Nations' view that peacekeeping is an effort to "monitor and observe peace processes that emerge in post-conflict situations and assist ex-combatants to implement the peace.
I argue in this essay that UN peacekeeping operations rarely succeed due to problems of coordination and determination. Let me go into the main handicaps. Political Sphere – United Nations peace operations, as mentioned above, are the result of a mandate emanated from the Security Council (SC).
Essay on UN Peacekeeping Words 5 Pages Even though, the UN charter does not mention the creation of a peacekeeping force, it has become a major . I argue in this essay that UN peacekeeping operations rarely succeed due to problems of coordination and determination. Let me go into the main handicaps.
Political Sphere - United Nations peace operations, as mentioned above, are the result of a mandate emanated from the Security Council (SC).