Defining politics and the political systems and concepts

The historical context is essential to understanding his purposes. Augustine, more than any other figure of late antiquity, stands at the intellectual intersection of Christianity, philosophy, and politics.

Defining politics and the political systems and concepts

Left—right politics 5 Mayopening of the Estates-General in Versailles inas the conservatives sat on the right The political term right-wing was first used during the French Revolutionwhen liberal deputies of the Third Estate generally sat to the left of the president's chair, a custom that began in the Estates General of The nobility, members of the Second Estategenerally sat to the right.

In the successive legislative assembliesmonarchists who supported the Old Regime were commonly referred to as rightists because they sat on the right side.

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A major figure on the right was Joseph de Maistrewho argued for an authoritarian form of conservatism.

Throughout the 19th centurythe main line dividing Left and Right in France was between supporters of the republic often secularists and supporters of the monarchy often Catholics. The centre-right Gaullists in post-World War II France advocated considerable social spending on education and infrastructure development as well as extensive economic regulation, but limited the wealth redistribution measures characteristic of social democracy.

I the reactionary right sought a return to aristocracy and established religion; II the moderate right distrusted intellectuals and sought limited government; III the radical right favored a romantic and aggressive nationalism; IV the extreme right proposed anti-immigration policies and implicit racism; and V the neo-liberal right sought to combine a market economy and economic deregulation with the traditional right-wing beliefs in patriotism, elitism and law and order.

Right-wing parties include conservatives, Christian democrats, classical liberals, nationalists and on the far-right; racists and fascists. The moderate right often promotes nationalism and social welfare policies.

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Eatwell stresses that this use has "major typological problems" and that the term "has also been applied to clearly democratic developments".

They support conservatism and economic liberalism and oppose socialism and communism. By contrast, the phrase "far-right" is used to describe those who favor an absolutist government, which uses the power of the state to support the dominant ethnic group or religion and often to criminalize other ethnic groups or religions.

It may include groups and individuals that are dedicated to a single issue, such as opposition to abortion or immigration.

Defining politics and the political systems and concepts

The original French right-wing was called "the party of order" and held that France needed a strong political leader to keep order. White, who rejects egalitarianism, wrote: Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. October Learn how and when to remove this template message The original use of "right-wing" in reference to communism had the conservatives on the right, the liberals in the centre and the communists on the left.

Both the conservatives and the liberals were strongly anti-communist. The history of the use of the term "right-wing" to mean anti-communist is a complicated one.

Many European monarchies outlawed the public expression of communist views and the Communist Manifestowhich began "[a] spectre [that] is haunting Europe", stated that monarchs feared for their thrones.

Many monarchists except constitutional monarchists viewed inequality in wealth and political power as resulting from a divine natural order. The struggle between monarchists and communists was often described as a struggle between the Right and the Left.

By World War Iin most European monarchies, the divine right of kings had become discredited and replaced by liberal and nationalist movements.

Most European monarchs became figureheads or accepted a lesser degree of powers while elected governments held the day-to-day power. The most conservative European monarchy, the Russian Empire, was replaced by the communist Soviet Union.

The Russian Revolution inspired a series of other communist revolutions across Europe in the years —An examination of the possibilities for libertarian feminism, taking the feminist thought of the 19th century radical individualists as an example and a guide. We find that the radical libertarian critique of statism and the radical feminist critique of patriarchy are complementary, not contradictory, and we discuss some of the confusions that lead many libertarians--including many libertarian.

A political spectrum is a system of classifying different political positions upon one or more geometric axes that symbolize independent political dimensions..

Most long-standing spectra include a right wing and left wing, which originally referred to seating arrangements in the French parliament after the Revolution (–).

On a . Augustine: Political and Social Philosophy. St. Augustine ( C.E.), originally named Aurelius Augustinus, was the Catholic bishop of Hippo in northern Africa. POLI Race and Politics in the Contemporary United States.

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