The importance of women in politics 1 On Election time is once again upon the nation with candidates already declaring their intention to vie for one office or the other. From the office of the President, to Governorship, the National and State legislatures, politicians have begun their meetings and political alignments all with a view to to electoral victory. Given this development, I consider it pertinent to draw attention to a matter that has often escaped serious discussion in the Nigerian political landscape and this is the need to provide more opportunities for women in politics in Nigeria.
The main feminist motivation for making this distinction was to counter biological determinism or the view that biology is destiny. A typical example of a biological determinist view is that of Geddes and Thompson who, inargued that social, psychological and behavioural traits were caused by metabolic state.
It would be inappropriate to grant women political rights, as they are simply not suited to have those rights; it would also be futile since women due to their biology would simply not be interested in exercising their political rights.
To counter this kind of biological determinism, feminists have argued that behavioural and psychological differences have social, rather than biological, causes. Commonly observed behavioural traits associated with women and men, then, are not caused by anatomy or chromosomes. Rather, they are culturally learned or acquired.
Although biological determinism of the kind endorsed by Geddes and Thompson is nowadays uncommon, the idea that behavioural and psychological differences between women and men have biological causes has not disappeared.
In the s, sex differences were used to argue that women should not become airline pilots since they will be hormonally unstable once a month and, therefore, unable to perform their duties as well as men Rogers More recently, differences in male and female brains have been said to explain behavioural differences; in particular, the anatomy of corpus callosum, a bundle of nerves that connects the right and left cerebral hemispheres, is thought to be responsible for various psychological and behavioural differences.
Anne Fausto-Sterling has questioned the idea that differences in corpus callosums cause behavioural and psychological differences. First, the corpus callosum is a highly variable piece of anatomy; as a result, generalisations about its size, shape and thickness that hold for women and men in general should be viewed with caution.
Second, differences in adult human corpus callosums are not found in infants; this may suggest that physical brain differences actually develop as responses to differential treatment. Third, given that visual-spatial skills like map reading can be improved by practice, even if women and men's corpus callosums differ, this does not make the resulting behavioural differences immutable.
Fausto-Sterling b, chapter 5. Psychologists writing on transsexuality were the first to employ gender terminology in this sense. Although by and large a person's sex and gender complemented each other, separating out these terms seemed to make theoretical sense allowing Stoller to explain the phenomenon of transsexuality: Along with psychologists like Stoller, feminists found it useful to distinguish sex and gender.
This enabled them to argue that many differences between women and men were socially produced and, therefore, changeable.
Rubin's thought was that although biological differences are fixed, gender differences are the oppressive results of social interventions that dictate how women and men should behave. However, since gender is social, it is thought to be mutable and alterable by political and social reform that would ultimately bring an end to women's subordination.
In some earlier interpretations, like Rubin's, sex and gender were thought to complement one another. That is, according to this interpretation, all humans are either male or female; their sex is fixed.
But cultures interpret sexed bodies differently and project different norms on those bodies thereby creating feminine and masculine persons. Distinguishing sex and gender, however, also enables the two to come apart: So, this group of feminist arguments against biological determinism suggested that gender differences result from cultural practices and social expectations.
Nowadays it is more common to denote this by saying that gender is socially constructed. But which social practices construct gender, what social construction is and what being of a certain gender amounts to are major feminist controversies.
There is no consensus on these issues. See the entry on intersections between analytic and continental feminism for more on different ways to understand gender. Masculinity and femininity are thought to be products of nurture or how individuals are brought up.
They are causally constructed Haslanger And the mechanism of construction is social learning. Feminine and masculine gender-norms, however, are problematic in that gendered behaviour conveniently fits with and reinforces women's subordination so that women are socialised into subordinate social roles: That is, feminists should aim to diminish the influence of socialisation.
Social learning theorists hold that a huge array of different influences socialise us as women and men.Several of them focused on women in politics at specific regions, such as Middle East, Africa and Islamic countries (Nichols, ; Devlin and Elgie, ; Ayata and Tutuncu, ; Bano, ) and on the difference between two areas of representation: substantive or descriptive and the number seats held by women (Karp and Banducci, ; Dabelko and Herrnson, ; Campbell and Wolbrecht, ).
PARTICIPATION OF WOMEN IN POLITICAL LIFE An assessment of developments in national parliaments, political parties, governments and the Inter-Parliamentary Union, five years after the Fourth World Conference on Women Based on IPU’s world survey . The role of South African women in politics has increased since the end of apartheid through policy changes and organisations set up to enable women’s rights.
Data from United Nations Women has shown that the country is faring decently in enabling women to take an active role in government. of women in politics. Lesser women are seen in holding key positions and decision making positions in the political arena.
The marginalization of Indian women in politics is as old as the Indian society. Their low representation in political sphere is one of the main reasons for. An Analysis of the Economic Status of Women in Cameroon By Stella Nana-Fabu1 traditional Cameroonian woman’s role in both the public and private spheres and her labour was the material basis for exercising her political and social power.
Figure A Model of Women’s Status: Pre-colonial Africa-Cameroon. Mapping the State of Women in America; Explore the Data: The State of Women in America; The role of women in the United States has changed dramatically over the past few decades.