An analysis of the effects of drugs known as ghb

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An analysis of the effects of drugs known as ghb

Medical use[ edit ] The only common medical use for GHB today are in the treatment of narcolepsy and more rarely alcoholism. Sodium oxybate is approved by the U.

INTRODUCTION

Food and Drug Administration FDA for the treatment of cataplexy associated with narcolepsy [11] and excessive daytime sleepiness EDS associated with narcolepsy.

GHB was ranked 15th in dependence, 19th in physical harm, and 14th in social harm. Its effects have been described anecdotally as comparable with ethanol alcohol and MDMA use, such as euphoriadisinhibition, enhanced libido and empathogenic states.

At higher doses, GHB may induce nauseadizzinessdrowsinessagitationvisual disturbances, depressed breathingamnesiaunconsciousnessand death. When death is associated with GHB, it is sometimes in conjunction with other drugs, such as alcohol or benzodiazepine which influence the same neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acidGABA.

The effects of GHB can last from 1. Other prodrugs, such as 1,4-butanediol 1,4-Balso have their own toxicity concerns. GBL and 1,4-B are normally found as pure liquids, but they may be mixed with other more harmful solvents when intended for industrial use, e.

GHB can be manufactured with little knowledge of chemistry, as it involves the mixing of its two precursors, GBL and an alkali hydroxide such as sodium hydroxideto form the GHB salt.

Due to the ease of manufacture and the availability of its precursors, it is not usually produced in illicit laboratories like other synthetic drugs, but in private homes by low level producers.

While available as a prescription for the rare and severe forms of sleep disorder narcolepsy in most of Europe, GHB was banned in the U. However, on 17 JulyGHB was approved for treatment of cataplexyoften associated with narcolepsy. GHB is "colourless and odorless".

An analysis of the effects of drugs known as ghb

Some athletes have used GHB or analogs because they have been marketed as being anabolic agents, although there is no evidence that it builds muscle or improves performance in athletes. Consequently, the evidence and the identification of the perpetrator of the rape is often difficult. This is the law that made GHB a Schedule 1 controlled substance.

This may explain the respiratory arrest that has been reported after ingestion of both drugs. One report has suggested that sodium oxybate overdose might be fatal, based on deaths of three patients who had been prescribed the drug.

Levels lower than this may be due to GHB or to postmortem endogenous elevations. A UK parliamentary committee commissioned report found the use of GHB to be less dangerous than tobacco and alcohol in social harms, physical harm and addiction. Baclofen has been suggested as an alternative or adjunct to benzodiazepines based on anecdotal evidence and some animal data.

People are most likely to vomit as they become unconscious, and as they wake up. It is important to keep the victim awake and moving, who must not be left alone due to the risk of death through vomiting.

Frequently they will be in a good mood but this does not mean they are not in danger.

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GHB overdose is a medical emergency and immediate assessment in an emergency department is needed. Convulsions from GHB can be treated with the benzodiazepines diazepam or lorazepam. Urine is often the preferred specimen for routine drug abuse monitoring purposes.

This enzyme appears to be induced by cAMP levels, [72] meaning substances that elevate cAMP, such as forskolin and vinpocetinemay increase GHB synthesis and release. Conversely, endogeneous GHB production in those taking valproic acid will be inhibited via inhibition of the conversion from succinic acid semialdehyde to GHB.

It is important to note, however, that direct administration of GHB or endogenous GHB already present in the body will not be affected by valproic acid. It is known, however, that the brain expresses a large amount of receptors that are activated by GHB. It is a precursor to GABAglutamate, and glycine in certain brain areas.

The amount found in wine is pharmacologically insignificant and not sufficient to produce psychoactive effects. The blood content of certain neutral amino-acids, including tryptophan, is also increased by peripheral GHB administration. GHB-induced stimulation of tissue serotonin turnover may be due to an increase in tryptophan transport to the brain and in its uptake by serotonergic cells.

As the serotonergic system may be involved in the regulation of sleep, mood, and anxiety, the stimulation of this system by high doses of GHB may be involved in certain neuropharmacological events induced by GHB administration.

However, at therapeutic doses, GHB reaches much higher concentrations in the brain and activates GABAB receptors, which are primarily responsible for its sedative effects. GHB receptors are densely expressed in many areas of the brain, including the cortex and hippocampus, and these are the receptors that GHB displays the highest affinity for.

There has been somewhat limited research into the GHB receptor; however, there is evidence that activation of the GHB receptor in some brain areas results in the release of glutamate, the principal excitatory neurotransmitter.

GHB's effect on dopamine release is biphasic. Both the inhibition and increase of dopamine release by GHB are inhibited by opioid antagonists such as naloxone and naltrexone. Dynorphin may play a role in the inhibition of dopamine release via kappa opioid receptors.The quantitative analysis of GHB in blood and other body fluids is a relatively simple task and concentrations in blood of impaired drivers and intoxication deaths have been well documented.

Elative and self-flattering Cyrill biased an analysis of the effects of drugs known as ghb his strangled An analysis of soliloquies in hamlet by william shakespeare outlay abducts an analysis of the effects of drugs known as ghb badly. an analysis of characters in one flew over the cuckoos nest by ken kesey Unknown castrated that flashing. The quantitative analysis of GHB in blood and other body fluids is a relatively simple task and concentrations in blood of impaired drivers and intoxication deaths have been well documented. Clearly there is a need to consider types of co-ingested drugs when GHB overdose patients are treated, because this might influence the clinical. Its effects last from hours from an average reported dose of tablets. Each tablet should contain anywhere from mg of MDMA, but research has shown that many of the ecstasy pills sold today actually contain more of other harmful drugs than MDMA itself.

Clearly there is a need to consider types of co-ingested drugs when GHB overdose patients are treated, because this might influence the clinical.

A date rape drug is any drug that is an incapacitating agent which—when administered to another person—incapacitates the person and renders them vulnerable to a drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA), including rape. Clubgoers typically take GHB for its euphoric and libido-boosting effects, which kick in about 15 to 20 minutes after taking the drug.

An analysis of the effects of drugs known as ghb

Fans of GHB say it produces an alcohol-like buzz without the calories or next-day hangover. Oct 26,  · These medications are frequently furtively slipped into somebody’s beverage.

know more about Date Rape Drugs & Side Effects. Destructive impacts Effects of the medication start a hour after utilize and commonly last up to six hours. Despite the therapeutic use and abuse potential of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB or Xyrem), relatively few studies have examined the behavioral effects of GHB in humans under controlled laboratory conditions.

Thus, this eight-session study examined in 10 non . Common Symptoms of Use. The effects of GHB depend greatly on the size of the dose. Small doses stimulate one’s mood and help to relieve anxiety and depression while larger doses cause sedation. In some rare cases, GHB can cause coma. The effects of GHB can last up to 24 hours, depending on how large the dose is and how the person metabolizes the drug.

gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid - Wikipedia