The Effects of the Industrial Revolution on the Family In the last part of the eighteenth century, a new revolution was formed and gave birth to a new standard of living.
Social and Political Impact of the First Phase of the Industrial Revolution From tothe population of England and Wales doubled, from nine million to eighteen million. During the same period, the proportion of people living in cities rose from 10 percent to 50 percent. Put together, the population of the cities of England and Wales rose from about nine hundred thousand to nine million, a 1,percent increase, in fifty years.
The increase in population shocked people at the time. As early asthe English economist Thomas Robert Malthus — wrote an essay, "The Principles of Population," predicting widespread famine on the grounds that while population seemed to be proceeding at a geometrical rate 2, 4, 8, 16food production was only growing at an arithmetical rate 2, 4, 6, 8.
Malthus blamed the lower classes for having too many children and proposed that laws be passed limiting the number of children people were allowed to have. Although the catastrophe predicted by Malthus never occurred partly because there was a huge increase in productivity in agriculture, partly because the rate of increase in population slowedhis opinions were widely accepted at the time, particularly his conclusion that poor people were to blame for the profound social changes that accompanied the Industrial Revolution.
These social changes had several causes and consequences: The consolidation of farmlands as a result of the enclosure movement, in which wealthy aristocrats petitioned the government to own lands that communities used to share, pushed poorer people off the farms and into towns and cities see Chapter 1.
The dramatic rise in the number of factories provided jobs for some of these former farmers. These workers were relatively unskilled compared to master craftspeoplebut they could be trained to operate the new machinery being introduced. The flow of rural people into cities overwhelmed the physical facilities.
Poorly built, inexpensive houses were developed and people crowded into them. Public health facilities, such as adequate sewage systems, could not keep pace with the growth in population. Words to Know Anarchism: A social philosophy that advocates voluntary associations among people as a form of self-government, as opposed to central governments dominated by a monarch or other central figure.
A form of government in which all the people own property, including both land and capital, in common.
A political and economic system in which the people control both the government and also major elements of the economy, such as owning or tightly regulating factories.
The nature of work in factories—long hours sixteen-hour work-days were not uncommonmonotonous labor, widespread employment of children—worsened issues of health. Low wages resulted in crowded housing, inadequate sanitation, and inadequate diets.
Serious environmental changes took place. Coal was the universal fuel to power factories and heat homes. Soot, a byproduct of burnt coal, covered English cities, turning many buildings black over time and contributing to air pollutionboth inside poorly ventilated factories and outside. Lack of sewage treatment plants resulted in raw human waste running into streams and rivers.
As late asa leading English scientist, Michael Faraday —wrote a letter to the editor of the Times of London describing a boat ride on the River Thames, which runs through London: The appearance and the smell of the water forced themselves at once on my attention.
The whole of the river was an opaque pale brown fluid. Their complexion is sallow and pallid—with a peculiar flatness of feature, caused by the want of a proper quantity of adipose substance [fat] to cushion out the cheeks.
Their stature low—the average height of four hundred men, measured at different times, and different places, being five feet six inches.
Their limbs slender, and playing badly and ungracefully.
A very general bowing of the legs. Great numbers of girls and women walking lamely or awkwardly, with raised chests and spinal flexures. Nearly all have flat feet, accompanied with a down-tread, differing very widely from the elasticity of action in the foot and ankle, attendant upon perfect formation.
But the overworking does not apply to children only; the adults are also overworked.Changes Caused by the Industrial Revolution Economic Changes 1.
Machines replaced people in methods of production. 2. The factory replaced the home as the center of production. 3. The standard of living grew higher as more goods were produced.
4. Factory jobs tended to bore workers. Changes in social and living conditions £5 banknote, Carlisle, (,) The industrial and economic developments of the Industrial Revolution brought significant social changes.
During the first Industrial Revolution, Britain experienced massive changes—scientific discoveries, expanding gross national product, new technologies, and new buildings and structure types. At the same time, the population changed—it grew in number, became more urbanized, healthier, and .
The social changes brought about by the Industrial Revolution were significant The Industrial Revolution brought with it an increase in population and urbanization, as well as new social classes The bad living conditions in the towns can be traced to lack of good brick, the absence of building codes, and the lack of machinery for public sanitation.
The Industrial Revolution propelled fundamental changes in agriculture, transportation, economic policies and social structure. As of any revolution it thoroughly destroyed the old manner and traditions of doing things, but also signified abrupt changes. Changes such as the Industrial Revolution and political liberalization spread first and fastest in western Europe—Britain, France, the Low Countries, Scandinavia, and, to an extent, Germany and Italy.
Eastern and southern Europe, more rural at the outset of the period, .